Orienteering, the sport of compass and map started in Scandanavia is popular around the world and is now gaining adherents in the United States.
The sport of orienteering began as a military training exercise in the Scandinavian forests in the last decades of the 19th century. The term "orienteering" comes from the military practice of orientation, finding ones way through unfamiliar ground with a "chart and compass."
The Tjalve Sports Club, based outside Oslo, Norway, staged the first public orienteering meet on October 31, 1897. Thereafter orienteering clubs began appearing sporadically across Norway and Sweden.
Major Ernst Killander is recognized as the "Father of Orienteering." As President of the Stockholm (Sweden) Amateur Athletic Association in 1918, Killander noticed a declining interest in track and field among Sweden's youth. To stimulate interest in running outside a track environment he integrated the orienteering principles of map and compass with a cross-country competition. In blending the mental agility and navigational skills addition to the strength, stamina and running ability of cross-country, Killander created modern orienteering.
Scandinavians became skilled orienteers, so much so that Adolph Hitler banned the sport during German occupation of Norway in World War II because he feared their extensive knowledge of Norway's wilderness terrain would be assisting the resistant movements. After the war, orienteering spread to other European countries and the International Orienteering Federation was formed in 1961. The next year the first European Championships were held in Norway.
World championships, held every two years, began in 1966. In 1988, orienteering became an Olympic-affiliated sport and is awaiting full entry into the slate of sports at the Olympic Games. Today the International Orienteering Federation sports 41 full members and 8 associate members from around the world.
Harald Wibye, a Norwegian, is credited with beginning public orienteering in the Untied States by staging the first event on November 5, 1967 at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. Orienteering gained its first foothold in America through the military, especially the Marines, who won the first six national men's orienteering titles beginning in 1971, and cadets at the United States Military Academy.
Wibye only stayed in North America two years but helped establish orienteering clubs in several states and founded the first Canadian orienteering club in Montreal. Today there are 70 orienteering clubs around the United States with some 8,000 members but Wibye's original Delaware Valley Orienteering Club, with 700 members, is easily the largest.
An orienteering course usually consists of between five and twenty checkpoints which the orienteer must locate in order with only a topographical map and compass for guidance. In competitive orienteering, the finisher who successfully finds all the checkpoints in the least elapsed time is the winner. The course can cover anywhere from a mile to up to ten miles.
The elite of the sport, with compass strapped to a thumb, can race through dense undergrowth, across streams, around cliffs at a pace of about six minutes per mile while marking off all their control points. But orienteering is hardly a sport reserved for the elite. Families are encouraged to participate and if one wants to walk a course while studying the map and compass, so be it. And orienteering is no longer just for runners; ski orienteering is now gaining adherents around the world.
Dandruff is the accumulation of dead skin cells on the scalp, which form scaly flakes on the head. Homemade recipes are best to treat dandruff.
Dandruff is the accumulation of dead skin cells on the scalp, which, if not removed, form scaly flakes on the head. Normally, dead skin cells are replaced once a month. But with people with dandruff, the process takes about one or two weeks.
To take care of dandruff, here are some recipes:
1. Dry thyme 3 table spoon Dry rosemary 2 tablespoon Apple cider vinegar 1 cup Distilled water 1 1/2 cups
Boil water. Put the herbs in it. Remove from heat. Steep for 1/2 hour. Strain into a bottle. Pour vinegar in it. Shake well. Gently massage a small amount into the scalp after shampooing and rinsing properly. Do not wash hair after application. Towel dry hair.
A regular application with 2-3 days interval can help eliminate dandruff and stimulate hair growth.
2. Coconut oil 2 tablespoon Ginger root (grated) 1 tablespoon Lemon juice 5 tablespoon
Gently massage scalp with coconut oil in circular motion. Mix grated ginger roots with lemon juice. Apply all over scalp. Leave on for 30-40 minutes before shampooing. Repeat every 3-4 days.
This is a great scalp tonic for dandruff. It moisturizes dry scalp and conditions hair while lemon juice cleanses scalp of flakes.
3. Castor oil 2 tablespoon Almond oil 2 tablespoon Mix the oils. Warm them. Gently massage scalp with the mixture at bedtime. Leave it on for the night. (Cover the pillow with a towel to prevent staining.) Shampoo it off the next day. This is excellent to promote hair growth. Massage of oils help loosen dandruff to speed up it's removal.
4. Eggs 2 Amla fruits 4-5 Kesuth (or ashwagandha) leaves 2 oz Distilled water 2 cups
Boil amla in water for 10-15 minutes. Strain and store the water in a bowl. Crush kesuth or ashwagandha leaves to make a paste with little bit of water. Add it in the bowl. Beat eggs separately. Add to the mixture. Mix well. Apply this hair pack to the head thoroughly. Leave on for 20 minutes. Wash with cold water. This not only treats dandruff but also strengthens roots of hairs and promotes hair growth.
5. White vinegar 1 cup Distilled water 1 cup Mix the ingredients well. Apply to scalp after shampooing and washing. Do not rinse after application. Let hair air dry or towel dry hair. Apply once or twice a week to get rid of dandruff.
6. Fenugreek (methi) seeds 3 tablespoon Distilled water 1 cup Soak fenugreek seeds overnight. Grind them in the morning to make a fine paste. Apply the paste all over scalp. Leave on for 30 minutes. Wash off and shampoo. Apply twice a week. This prevents dandruff and falling hair while promoting hair growth.
7. Amla fruits 4-5 Shikakai pods 3 Reetha fruits 4-5 Distilled water 5 cups Boil all the ingredients in water over slow heat for 15-20 minutes. Strain the water in a bowl. Shampoo hair with it twice a week. This is an excellent hair tonic that removes dandruff, promotes hair growth and strengthens the root of the hair follicles.
8. Witch hazel 2 oz Lemon juice 3 tablespoon Distilled water 1 cup Mix all the ingredients thoroughly. Apply to scalp after shampooing when the hair is damp not wet. Do not rinse. Repeat twice or thrice a week. This treats dandruff and gives hair a healthy shine.
9. Olive, coconut or sweet almond oil 6 drops Tea tree oil 3 drops Mix the oils thoroughly. Massage all over scalp and leave on overnight. Shampoo off in the morning. This is an excellent scalp conditioner. The vitamins E and F in almond oil are great for soothing dry, itchy scalp. Olive oil is a superb conditioner.
10. Lavender oil 2 drops Rosemary oil 2 drops Thyme oil 2 drops jojoba oil 3 drops Mix the oils thoroughly. Massage the scalp at bedtime with the mixture. Cover head with a cloth overnight. Shampoo in the morning. These essential oils remove dandruff, stimulate hair growth and thicken and improve hair texture. Also the cooling and calming effect of the essential oils will help you have a good night's sleep.
11. Birch oil 5 drops Cocolut oil 2 drops Lemon juice 3 tablespoon Mix the oils well. Gently massage the entire scalp. Apply lemon juice with a cotton ball. Leave on for one hour before shampooing. Repeat thrice a week. This recipe is a splendid anti-dandruff scalp soother.
12. Aloe vera gel 7-9 tablespoon Apply the gel to the roots of hair. Leave on for 15 minutes. Shampoo. This is a quick fix for dandruff. Regular application keeps dandruff away.
13. Coconut oil 3 tablespoon Lemon juice 5 tablespoon Warm oil. Massage gently all over the scalp. Steam hair. Wrap a towel over the head for better penetration of the oil. Leave on for 1 hour. Apply lemon juice. Shampoo after 15 minutes. The warm oil softens the dandruff while lemon juice cleanses it. Repeat after every 3-4 days for complete dandruff removal.
14. Dry rosemary 1 oz Dry sage 1 oz Distilled water 2 cups Boil water. Pour rosemary and sage in it. Steep for 2 hours. Strain. Apply to damp (not wet) hair after shampooing. Leave on for 5 minutes. This will eliminate dandruff if repeated after every 2-3 days.
15. Tea tree oil 1 tablespoon Jojoba oil 1 tablespoon Mix the oils well. Gently massage scalp with the mixture. Wrap head with a warm towel. Leave on for 2 hours. Shampoo. Repeat twice a week. This method eliminates dandruff and keeps hair healthy.
1.To preserve the potency and lifespan of the products, store away from heat and sunlight in tightly closed bottles and refrigerate.
2.Shelf life is approximately one week after refrigeration since most of these products do not contain any preservative.
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