Lightings : Kitchen Lighting
Accent Lighting - Accent lighting adds drama to a kitchen by creating visual interest. As part of the decorating scheme, accent lighting is used to spotlight paintings, houseplants, sculpture, and other prized possessions, or to highlight drapery or the texture of a wall.
Accent Lighting - House plants can be accented by aiming an up-light at the wall behind the plant, creating a dramatic silhouette of the plant against the wall.
Color - Think about the importance of color in your kitchen using proper lighting to bring out that dramatic color.
Dimming Systems - Today's dimming systems enable you to several things: lower light levels to conserve energy and increase bulb life, vary the mood of a kitchen, and alter the intensity of the light to suit the activity.
Down-lights - When down-lights are used in the kitchen they should be centered over the exposed countertop. This is another way of providing lighting that will eliminate someone working in their shadows on the countertop. Also, if white trims with white baffles are selected, the down-light becomes less obtrusive, blends into the ceiling a little more, and helps to prevent the ceiling looking like "Swiss cheese".
Fluorescent Lamps - When selecting fluorescent lamps for the kitchen try to select T8 lamps with a color rendering index of at least 85 and a color temperature of 3000K. This lamp is usually identified using the number, "830" or "930", somewhere in its product code.
Fluorescent Lighting - Fluorescent lighting is, without question, the coolest of all of the light sources and modern, high quality fluorescent lamps provide excellent lighting with very good color rendition.
Fluorescent Lighting - When selecting fluorescent fixtures for the kitchen try to select those that have instant start T8 electronic ballasts. This will ensure that the fluorescent lamp will turn on without flickering, that the fixture will not give off with much heat, that the ballast will not emit an annoying humming sound, and that the fixture will accommodate the new energy-efficient T8 fluorescent lamps.
General - Lighting can add depth and/or excitement to a kitchen. Let's face it, the kitchen is where you and your family will spend a lot of time so take the time to light it well so that it becomes an inviting and pleasant space to be in.
General Lighting - General lighting provides an area with overall illumination. Also known as ambient lighting, general lighting radiates a comfortable level of brightness, enabling one to see and walk about safely.
Indirect Lighting - Coves, soffits, and other concealed locations can also be used to provide very pleasant, very effective indirect lighting using T5 or T8 fluorescent strip fixtures.
Layers of Light - There are three basic types of lighting that work together to light a kitchen: general lighting, task lighting, and accent lighting. A good lighting plan combines all three types to light an area, according to function and style.
Line Voltage Halogen Lighting - Line voltage halogen lighting is often too hot to use in or under cabinets.
Low Voltage Halogen Lighting - Low-voltage halogen lighting offers a very white, crisp kind of light source that has excellent color rendering capabilities and often makes crystal and good china "sparkle".
Pendants - In general, pendants should be hung about 30" above the tabletop and be about 12" narrower that the table on all sides.
Task Lighting - Task lighting helps you perform specific tasks such a preparing food, reading, sewing, cooking, homework, hobbies, games, or balancing your checkbook.
Under Cabinet Lighting - Under cabinet lighting should be mounted closer to the cabinet front - not near the back of the cabinet. In the kitchen especially this helps to eliminate the possibility of your working in your own shadows.
Wall Grazing - Wall grazing provides dramatic illumination that reveals the texture of special materials, such as the brick and stone used in fireplaces. Wall grazing is uneven, brighter and scalloped at the top of the wall. For the most exciting effects, use PAR lamps in small aperture down-lights. Locate the down-lights no more than 12" from the wall and the same distance apart. Wall grazing also lights polished surfaces, such as marble without distracting reflections in the surface.
Wall Washing - Wall washers are special down-lights that direct light up to the top of the wall. They eliminate the shadows, sometimes called "scallops", which are characteristic of simple down-lights. Do not space wall washers more than 36" apart. For the smoothest effect, space wall washers 24" from the wall and 24" apart. Avoid locating wall washers near doors where they can glare into the eyes of people entering the room.
Xenon Lighting - Xenon lighting is long-life incandescent lighting that can be dimmed, if need be. This type of lighting can be used for cabinet, bookcase, under-cabinet, or indirect cove lighting.
A Fragrance For Each Mood?
There's nothing more important to how a fragrance will smell on you than your body's PH balance. Ideal PH is alkaline - but stress and poor nutrition will turn your balance to acid in no time, and that in turn will react differently to anything you apply on your skin.
When you're in a good mood it seems that any fragrance will match you type - and in most cases that's true. Your sense of smell is at its peak and you are able to distinguish the subtle tones of various fragrances. This is the right time to do a short inventory of your fragrance collection, or - go shopping.
In contrast, a bad mood is an olfactory sensory killer. You pick the wrong fragrance, for the wrong occasion and time of day - you basically tell everyone "leave me alone - I'm not in the mood".
Smells have been shown to evoke memories that have strong emotional qualities. The sense of smell is critical for the existence of almost all creatures. We humans, able to distinguish over 10,000 different odor molecules, utilize our sense of smell for a multitude of activities from enjoying the aroma of freshly brewed coffee to deciding whom not to sit next to on the bus.
And talking about being able to enjoy the aroma of freshly brewed coffee - you may have noticed already that each counter of every perfumery has a coffee been jar handy. Take a sniff from the coffee been jar just before you try a new fragrance to refresh you palette - just like wine tasting, when you notice that many wines will taste differently if you go back to them after trying other wines - you need to cleanse your palette with water or raspberry sorbet.
How should I apply fragrance?
: When using an eau de cologne, eau de toilette, or eau de parfum, spray or dab liberally on the skin. These versions of fragrance are designed to be used all over. Spray in the air and walk into a cloud of scent for an even, head to toe experience!
Perfume, the most concentrated version of scent, is designed to be applied at the pulse points, on the wrists, behind the neck, in the decollete, behind the ears, or even behind the knees. Your body warmth will radiate your delightful perfume.
How should I care for my fine fragrances?
: Fragrance is made to be used and enjoyed - use it or lose it! For maximum shelf life, store fragrance away from bright sunlight, in a cool, dark area, with the cap tightly secured. Fragrance oils can turn rancid or evaporate if stored improperly.
How do I make fragrance last on my skin?
: It is difficult for dry skin to retain fragrance. Try "layering" fragrance by using several products in a line. For example, begin with scented soap or bath oil, follow with body lotion or creme, dust with powder to set the fragrance, and follow with perfume at the pulse points, or an all-over spritz of eau de parfum. Use body creme for extra nourishment in cold winter months.
"Uncommon Scents": Fragrance Dos and Donts
DO wear more perfume if you have dry skin. Scent needs oils to last.
DO wear stronger scents in cold weather. Cold reduces a scent's strength.
DO wait ten minutes before deciding to buy a new scent.
DO purchase a new scent late in the day, when your sense of smell is sharper.
DO try scents on your own skin, as everyone's skin chemistry is different.
DO choose what complements your natural body odor.
DO apply perfume right after you shower or bathe. Your pores will be open and soak up the scent.
DON'T use deodorant soap where perfume is applied.
DON'T use perfume near pearl or costume jewelry. The alcohol in perfumes can cause pearls to yellow and can strip the coating off jewelry.
DON'T sample more than two or three new scents at a time. Your olfactory senses will become confused.
DON'T stick to one fragrance all year long. Temperatures affect the intensity of fragrance.
Fragrance Tips and Perfumes of Personal Use
Everyone has a personal "scent circle": approximately an arm's length from the body. No one should be aware of your fragrance unless he or she steps inside your "circle." Fragrance should be one of the most subtle, personal messages you send to those with whom you come in contact.
For a long-lasting effect, fragrance should be layered all over the body, starting with toilet water or eau de parfum, next in strength to perfume, to build the fragrance foundation. Because fragrance rises, spray or smooth fragrance onto skin from the feet to the shoulders. If fragrance is applied only behind the ears, it will eventually rise and disappear.
The wearer's diet can affect the way a fragrance smells and lasts on the skin. If the wearer is on a high fat, spicy diet, for example, fragrances will be more intense. A dramatic change in diet can alter skin chemistry, causing fragrances to smell differently.
Skin type will also affect the way a fragrance smells on a person. Fragrance wearers with oilier skin should remember that fragrances interact with the oils in their skin to create a more intense scent. Dry skin does not retain fragrance as long as oily skin, requiring the wearer to re-apply the fragrance more often.
Fragrance Tips From Morning Til Night
Perfume, colognes and other 'scentfull' things like oils, sachets and candles trigger our strongest, fastest sense -- the sense of smell. So few people know, however, how to use these scents to help them get through their otherwise unscented days. Here are some tips about different kinds of scents and how to make them last . . . last, that is, at least as long as your legs hold out!
The French didn't discover perfumes (the Egyptians did) but the French turned perfume into an industry and they turned perfume making into a science. Their most important discovery was a way to overcome the fact that every scent will, over time, fade and the corresponding fact that some scents fade faster than others. The French answer to this was layered fragrances -- three layers, to be exact. In the perfume industry these layers are called notes: there is a top note that consists of the most volatile scent that will last for only a few hours (perhaps, to get you through your morning break), a middle note made of a less volatile scent that will last you until you're ready to punch out at the end of the work day and the base note that will follow you into your shower or tub just before bed. A slight down side to this French solution to the all day fragrance problem is that each 'note' is a different scent, so your scent will be a bit different (but still fabulous) at each stage.
Eau de perfume!
Eau de perfume is the most popular fragrance type because it is less expensive than perfume and lasts a good long time. Eau de perfume is best applied to the warmest body areas, the pulse points on the wrists and the side of the neck, between the breasts, in the crook of the elbows, behind your knees, on your inner thighs, and around the ankles. Never put any scent behind your ears and never overdo it. You want your scent to suggest not to scream.
Eau de toilette!
Eau de toilette contains a small percentage of fragrance oils and will only last three to four hours (depending on your skin type. Many women use eau de toilette and expect it to last throughout the day but are disappointed by mid-morning. This is really a minor problem that's easy to get around, simply carry a purse size with you and refresh your scent when you get the chance. Eau de toilette provides a wonderfully subtle scent and that's certainly a positive point -- it bears repeating that you should want your scent to suggest not to scream.
Scented body creams and lotions!
Scented body creams and lotions have approximately the same fragrance content as eau de toilette but because of their thick cream or lotion base they last somewhat longer; the scent should still be detectable at the very end of your day.
There are ways to make the most of your fragrances, and one way NOT to!
The French way! The best way to make your fragrance last all day is the French way, layer them. Start with a scented bubble bath and use the scented soap -- both should be available in your favorite scent (if either is not available, use an unscented substitute). After toweling off, use the body lotion -- use lots of it so your skin absorbs enough to last. Finish it off with your favorite scent (perfume or eau de toilette).
Romantic interludes! If at some point in your day romance is in the air, put some romantic scents literally in the air; here are some ways:
- Use essential oils, put a few drops of orange or some other citrus oil in a warmer or in a light bulb ring on the bedroom lamp -- don't overdo it, subtle is the word! You can also use juice squeezed from the rind of an orange or grapefruit.
- Have a vase of flowers in warm water next to the bed. The warm water will bring out the maximum scent from flowers that have a naturally strong scent . . . flowers like gardenias or lilies.
- Burn a scented candle (orange or jasmine) in the room.
- Put a light coating of an essential fruit or flower oil right on the light bulb in the nightstand lamp (naturally, you'll do this when the bulb is cold). When the light is turned on the oil will send it's scent to all corners of the bedroom.
A no no! Just in case you missed it before, never apply fragrance behind your ears -- it can throw off the scent and produce a scent you didn't bargain for (this is because of the sebaceous glands behind your ear.