Rugs: North American Rugs - Navajo rugs, American Indian rugs and native American rugs
North American is the name given to flat weave rugs and blankets woven by Native Americans in the Central Western areas of the US, mainly in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado. These rugs are better known as Navajo rugs.
The weaving of Navajo rugs is the continuation of a long tradition of excellent craftsmanship that dates back nearly three centuries.
It is believed the Navajos learned the craft from the Pueblo Indians around 1700, as early examples of Navajo weaving show the close parallels between the two groups. The principal difference between Navajo and Pueblo weaving is that the Navajos used wool, while the Pueblos used cotton.
In the mid 1800s, the Navajos started using dye sources and yarns from the Europeans, especially the Germans and Spanish. Along with dyes and commercial yarn, the Europeans brought designs that could be incorporated into the flat weaves of the Navajos. These were usually Oriental patterns, which the Europeans apparently couldn't get enough of.
From the Navajo's own designs, the most famous examples were the 'Chief Blankets', which were worn on the shoulders of the tribe's chief. These items were extremely popular with the other Plain's Indians.
Navajo weaving changed radically in the last twenty years of the 19th century. Commercial ready-to-use yarns were available in a variety of colors, and by 1890 the Navajo Indians were weaving mainly for the trading posts and white tourists.
The traders were a great influence on the weavers, and the requests for pillow covers and bed covers to decorate white homes resulted in a proliferation of quickly woven, inferior pieces.
By 1890, after many years of blankets and bed coverings, white settlers were demanding covering for the floor. The Navajo rugs were born as the Indians were quick to oblige.
The Indians were now weaving less of their traditional simple and abstract geometric designs and more American pictorials designs including patriotic patterns and railroad scenes and houses. The traditional rugs are virtually lost and very rare today and designers seem todesire their 'Aztec' look for modern settings.
There are a few settlements that might still be weaving Navajo rugs, but much like all the other aspects of the Indians' culture, the Navajo rug is but a faint memory to them.
Preventing ingrown hairs and shave bumps, as well as treating them after you get one, is easy if you know what to do.
Hair removal is an option for some, but an essential part of a beauty routine for others. There are various ways to smooth and hairless results, but some result in dermatological problems such as ingrown hairs. Ingrown hairs are a result of shaving. When the hair begins to grow back, sometimes it will either grow under the skin or curl back under the skin. These result in unsightly and sometimes irritated skin bumps. If you are fair skin, ingrown hairs will cause inflamed and red bumps. If you are darker in skin tone, they will be dark. Either way they are aesthetically challenging, especially in the bikini area. So how does one prevent ingrown hairs, when shaving? There are several techniques to use, to prevent ingrown hairs. The primary technique is to choose a multi-blade razor. Use a two to four blade razor to get the smoothest results.
After shaving, it is advisable to use an antibiotic topical ointment on the shaved area. The antibiotic properties will discourage infection of the shaved area, in case any nicks were incurred. The other major ingredient in the ointment is an exfollient. The exfollient, when used on a daily basis, will remove a layer of the skin of the shaved area. This prevents ingrown hairs, because as the hair would normally grow, or curl under the skin, a layer of skin is removed, allowing the hair to grow out without obstruction. These exfollients can be found in gel or liquid format. They may sting, when applied after a fresh shave, because they are high in alcohol concentration.
Using a shaving gel is essential in reducing the chance of ingrown hairs. The gel aids in the gliding of the blade over the skin, thus reducing irritation and nicks. It is the irritated and inflamed skin that closes off, and causes blockage of the hair leading to ingrown hairs. One can double your moisture protection by using a razor with a moisturizing strip. The moisture strips are comprised of moisturizers such as aloe, cocoa butter and lanolin.
Shaving the hair on a daily basis is another way to avoid ingrown hairs. Especially the ones the partially grown out, and then curl back under the skin. Regular shaving trims the hair before it has a chance to reverse its growth direction. Regular shaving also aids in exfoliating the skin, to prevent obstruction of the hair strands during growth.
Using warm water along with shaving gel assists in opening up the pores when shaving. Keeping the pores open, allows access to hairs that may be on their way to becoming an ingrown hair. Immediately after the shave, follow up with cold water or an astringent to reclose pores.
If one suffers form ingrown hairs in the underarm section, strict hygiene may remedy the problem. Always make sure to clean away all traces of deodorant. Because deodorant enters the pores to combat odors, it also encourages ingrown hair growth.
Ingrown hairs can be unsightly at the least, or painful at the most. Using moisturizers, and clean multi-blade razors reduces the chance of having ingrown hair. Exfollients also assist in the chance of one having a smooth and flawless shaving experience.
Enjoying the outdoors can be a fun experience with some planning and preparation. Here a some tips to ensure a memorable camp out.
Enjoying the outdoors, cooking over a flame, sleeping on the hard ground in a nylon tent can be fun for some and a make work project for others. Eating healthy can be a task when out in the wilderness. The important key to fun camping is planning and organization.
After several grueling camp outs I came to realize that it could be enjoyable if I had just planned more efficiently.
Here are a few ways to make your camp outs more desirable.
Firstly, prepare as much food as you can at home. Mix ground beef for burgers, shape the patties then lay each burger on a cut square of wax paper. Then stack them on top of one another and store them in freezer bags. By doing this a couple days ahead of time, the meat will be frozen and will keep the other foods in your camping cooler chilled. Another idea is to marinate chicken and store it in freezer bags also. Try to pack dry goods as opposed to fresh. You can still eat healthy; you just have to be more selective when shopping for your trip. Fruits, such as apples, oranges and bananas don?t require refrigeration so you don?t have to worry about spoilage. Wash potatoes at home and wrap them in foil for baking instead of having to do it at the campsite. Many vegetables are available in canned form, also ravioli and stews. I found the best way to keep my breads and snacks fresh was to pack them in a rubber tote. This is a handy way to carry all of your dry goods instead of plastic bags.
Coleman propane stoves are a great asset for camping. You will get much use out of it; they last for many years. It is much easier to cook on these since you can control the heat settings.
Remember to bring a large plastic tarp and rope for overhead if the weather turns ugly. Doing this when you arrive and set up your camp will alleviate getting soaked unexpectedly. As far as bedding goes, ?think flannel?.
Flannel sheets under your sleeping bag will you keep you warm and decrease the moisture. Also large foam mats will make your sleeping arrangements more comfortable.
Flashlights or a lantern are a necessary item for nights in the wilderness.
Bringing extra fire wood and fire starter, such as ZIP is a good idea. You never know if firewood will be scarce where you are camping.
Raincoats and rubber boots are a must to keep you dry, in case of bad weather.
A few more items to remember are toilet paper, a Frisbee and a first aid kit.
Following these guidelines will ensure a fun camping trip.
Camping food list
Here is a camping foods list of items you can find at your local grocer. It is not necessary to spend a lot of money on special freeze dried foods for your camping or backpacking adventure.
When someone thinks of camping and cooking over a campstove or a campfire the image comes to mind of a breakfast of eggs and bacon and cowboy coffee on the fire and a dinner of hearty chili or beef stew that has been tended for several hours by the cook.
Unfortunately, that image only works if you have a wagon, horse or large boat to carry all the cooking accoutrements such as cast iron Dutch ovens, a large cooler with lots of ice to keep things fresh and a supply of fresh foods. These things are heavy and most campers today who are out for the back country experience prefer to carry as light a load as possible.
This usually necessitates the use of commercial freeze-dried camping meals which are 1.)expensive, 2.) usually not enough for the number of servings listed on the package and 3.)relatively tasteless and heavy on the salt and carbs. It is not necessary to do this when, with a little careful planning and a thorough search of your local grocery store can reveal a cornucopia of good food stuffs for you to take on your camping, canoeing or back-packing trip. And it doesn't have to rely on Ramen noodles for three meals a day!
Your prime consideration is going to be weight. When you consider your food, remember that you will also be carrying clothes, sleeping bag, water purification system, Thermo-Rest type mattress and who knows what else. Somewhere in with all your gear you also have to carry enough nourishment and energy for the time you are out in the woods. More than likely you will be cooking on one of the micro cooking stoves that are on the market. These consist of one burner and primarily fulfill the purpose of boiling water. Most of your food will be of the dehydrated variety so the stove is perfect for this.
There are many cereals on the market that are light in weight. Cheerios are healthy and light. Pre-packaged hot cereals, like oatmeal and Cream of Wheat work really well. If you are really interested in also reducing paper containers and keeping the price of your groceries down, buying the cereal in bulk, measuring out each days' portion and mixing in dried milk and sugar in proportion and repackaging in Zip-Loc bags works very well. You can also mix in dried fruits such as raisins, dried cranberries or blueberries or what ever fruit works for you. When you add the boiling water to the warm cereals, the fruit will re-hydrate. Of course, with the cold cereals such as the Cheerios, you will use cold water with the powdered milk.
For your breakfast drinks, you can find Tang or the store variety of orange breakfast drink almost every where. Measuring out portions again and putting them in a Zip-Loc bag gives you a method of carrying enough for several days. It helps to write the proportion of water to mix on a small piece of paper and placing it inside the bag. It is now possible to find decent drinkable coffee in bags just like tea. However, instant coffe works just as well, and again, reduces the paper waste that needs to be disposed of either by carrying out or by campfire. Cremora is an acceptable creamer for your coffee and in some areas can be found in single serving packets.
Lunches can be interesting. For lightweight bread substitute crackers such as Wasa Bread or other crackers. These also have the added advantage of not getting stale as fast as regular bread. There are many types of cheeses that do not need refrigeration, as well as small packs of genoa salami or pepperoni. Peanut butter can be put in squeeze tubes, as well as jams or jellies. Always carry chocolate! It puts a nice finish on a meal and feels very luxurious. If you don't mind carrying a little extra weight, there are numerous makers of canned meat products such as liver pate, chicken spread or ham spread, and even tuna salad.
When it comes to dinners, you have a real opportunity to get creative. Always think "out of the box" when you look in the grocery store. Many of the rice and noodle companies make dried rice and noodle dishes that at home you may use as a side dish, but out in the woods, with the addition of chopped jerkey or additional cheese or the added small can of chicken chunks with sun-dried tomatoes, can be your main course. Remember to add some nibble items while things are cooking and you will find that the meal is quite filling. Single serving soups, such as Cup of Soup, are warming and a good way to soothe the hungry beast until dinner is ready.
The primary thing to remember when camping is that it is not a forever type of thing. After a few days you will be returning to civilization and the opportunity to eat a "real" meal. You will not die of malnutrition if you don't get all your daily requirements for a couple of days. Camping in the back country makes it necessary to concentrate on calories for energy first and foremost.
However, with the above tips for cooking while outdoors, you will find yourself around the campfire, warm and full and thinking, "It don't get no better than this!" because, as we all know, everything tastes better outdoors!
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